Spells and Charms
Accio - Latin for "to summon". Summoning charm, used to make objects fly straight to the spell caster.
Alohomora - Spell used to unlock doors.
Aparecium - Used to reveal invisible ink.
Apparate - "Appareo" is Latin for "to become visible". Spell used to move instantly from one place and appear in another.
Avada Kedavra - Aramaic phrase that means "may it be destroyed". An Unforgivable Curse used to kill the victim. It famously produces a flash of green light.
Avis - Latin for "bird". Conjures a flock of birds.
Babbling Curse - Causes the victim to babble nonsense. Lockhart once cured someone of this curse on his travels. Or not.
Banishing Charm - The opposite of Accio, causes an object to fly away from the caster.
Bat - Bogey Hex - Maybe the effects of this are best left to the imagination. Causes bogies to grow, become bat - like, and attack the victim. Ginny casts this spell on Draco Malfoy in Order of the Phoenix.
Bubblehead Charm - Used to create a bubble of air around the caster's head. Often used to allow the caster to breathe underwater.
Cheering Charm - Not much is known about these, but it's safe to assume that they make people happy.
Colloportus - Seals a door against being opened.
Confundus - Charm "Confundo" is Latin for "to confuse". Used to confuse an object or person, to make them believe what the spell caster wants them to.
Conjunctivitis - Curse Conjunctivitis is an illness of the eyes that makes eyelids crust together. Attacks the eyes of the victim.
Crucio - Latin for "to torture". An Unforgiveable Curse. It inflicts excruciating pain on the victim.
Curse of the Bogies - Professor Quirrell told his class about this curse, although its exact effect is unknown. Something to do with bogies, no doubt.
Cushioning Charm - Creates an invisible cushioned area. It is primarily used in broomstick manufacture to make the brooms more comfortable to sit on.
Deletrius - "Delete" means "to erase". Used to erase spell images conjured by Priori Incantem.
Densaugeo - Enlarges the teeth of the victim.
Diffindo - Latin for "to split". A spell that rips an object in half.
Disapparate - The opposite of Apparate – you have to Disapparate before you Apparate at the other end.
Disillusion - Literal meaning is to remove an illusion. Generally used to indicate unhappiness with a situation. Spell used to hide something. Typically used to hide magical objects and occurrences from Muggles.
Dissendium - This is possibly a path - revealing spell. It was used to open a secret passage to Hogsmeade.
Drought Charm - Dries up a limited amount of water. Harry decided he probably wouldn't be able to use it to dry up the entire Hogwarts lake.
Engorgio - "Engorge" means "to fill to excess". Causes an object to enlarge.
Ennervate - Revives someone, especially someone who has had Stupefy cast on them.
Entrail - Expelling Curse - Invented by Urquhart Rackharrow, 1612 - 1697. Effect unknown, but presumably involves expelling entrails.
Entrancing Enchantment - Entrances the person the spell is cast upon.
Evanesco - Latin for "to vanish". Used to make an object disappear.
Expecto Patronum - "Patronus" is Latin for "protector". Conjures a Patronus, which is some sort of spirit - animal which becomes more solid with the ability of the spell - caster. The Patronus defends the caster, from Dementors and possibly other things.
Expelliarmus - Latin for "to expel a weapon". Disarming spell – makes the victim's wand fly out of their hand.
Extinguishing Spell - Puts out fires. This was used by the keepers of the dragons used in the Triwizard Tournament.
Ferula - Conjures a splint and bandages.
Fidelius Charm - "Fidelis" is Latin for "faithful friends". A charm used to hide something or somebody from all people. The secret in question is concealed inside the soul of the Secret - Keeper, who is the only person to know the whereabouts of the hidden person/item.
Finite Incantatem - Removes the effects of any spells currently cast.
Flagrate - "Flagrantia" is Latin for "burning". Makes the spell - caster able to draw lines of fire with their wand.
Flame Freezing Charm - Charm used by Medieval witches to remove the effects of the fire when they were burned at the stake. It is a good idea at this point to scream a bit and pretend to be burning.
Furnunculus - Makes the victim's body break out in boils.
Hover Charm - Makes an item hover in the air. Famously used by Dobby on Aunt Petunia's pudding.
Immobulus - "Immobilise" means to prevent moving. Stops an object moving.
Impedimenta - "Impedimentum" is Latin for "a hindrance". Use to stop or slow down a person or creature (as opposed to an object).
Imperio - Imperious means "domineering". An Unforgivable Curse. Puts the victim under the complete control of the spell caster.
Imperturbable Charm - Impeturbable means "not able to be disturbed". Creates a barrier which sounds, objects and people cannot cross.
Impervius - Impervious means "incapable of being affected". Used to make an object resistant to water.
Incarcerous - "Incarcerate" means to shut in. Summons ropes which then bind the victim.
Incendio - "Incendo" is Latin for "set fire to". Creates fire.
Jelly - Legs Jinx - Makes the victim's legs shake uncontrollably.
Legilimens - Allows the spell caster to see memories from another person's mind. Occlumency is the defence of the mind against such an attack.
Locomotor - "Loco" is Latin for "place". "Moto" is Latin for "to move". Causes an object to travel floating in the air.
Locomotor Mortis - The Leg - Locker Curse. Causes the victim's legs to lock together. The incantation for this spell is of a similar form to the "Locomotor" spell but doesn't seem to sit very happily with it, considering the very different effects.
Lumos - "Lumen" is Latin for light. "Luminosus" is Latin for "bright". Produces light from the end of the caster's wand.
Mobili - XXXXX - "Mobilis" is Latin for "moveable". When XXXXX is replaced by an object, the object is forced to move.
Morsmordre - "Mors" is Latin for "death". Produces the Dark Mark.
Muggle - Repelling Charm - Used to keep Muggles away from things that wizards would prefer them not to see. No harm is done to the Muggles in question.
Nox - Latin for "night". Causes the effect of Lumos to stop.
Obliteration Charm - "Obliterate" means to wipe out, leaving no trace. This was used by Hermione to wipe out tracks in the snow. It may be able to remove other marks as well.
Obliviate - "Oblivio" is Latin for "forgetfulness" Erases memories from the victim as chosen by the spell caster.
Occlumency - The defence of the mind against psychic attack using the art of Legilimency
Orchideous - Named after the orchid, a type of flower. Creates flowers from the caster's wand.
Permanent Sticking - Charm Used to stick one thing to another. Permanently.
Peskipiksi Pesternomi - Used by Lockhart to attempt to get rid of Cornish Pixies. It had no effect, probably due to the fact that he'd just made it up.
Petrificus Totalus - An adaptation of "totally petrify". Renders the victim temporarily unable to move.
Placement Charm - Used to remotely position an object. Presumably similar to object moving spells such as Locomotor, except that the Placement Charm allows for accurate positioning of the target object.
Point Me - Causes a wand to point North.
Portus - "Porta" is Latin for "gate". Turns an item into a Portkey.
Prior Incantato - Creates an image of the last spell cast by a wand.
Protean Charm - A spell which links the appearance of several items. When one item is changed, the others change in the same way.
Protego - Latin for "protect". Creates a magical shield to deflect spells from others.
Quietus - Adaptation of "quiet". Negates the effects of the Sonorus spell.
Reducio - Adaptation of "reduce". Returns an object to it's normal size: negates the effect of Engorgio.
Reducto - Smashes things.
Relashio - Creates heat from the end of the wand. Normally the result is sparks. If the wand is under water you get boiling water.
Reparo - Latin for "to restore". Mends the target object.
Rictusempra - The Tickling Charm. Causes uncontrollable laughter in the victim.
Riddikulus - Adaptation of "ridiculous". Causes an item, creature or person to take on a humorous appearance of the spell - caster's choosing. Particularly useful against Boggarts, who are destroyed by laughter.
Scourgify - Cleans an item.
Serpensortia - From "serpent", a snake. Creates a snake from the caster's wand.
Severing Charm - Cuts one thing from another. This probably only works on items rather than people.
Silencio - From "silent". Forces an object, person or creature to be silent.
Slug Curse - Causes the victim to burp slugs.
Sonorus - Latin for "loud". Projects the voice of the spell caster, making it very loud.
Spark Charm - Causes sparks to be emitted from the end of the caster's wand. This may be the same spell as Relashio.
Stinging Hex - Produces a painful red weal on the victim's body.
Stupefy - Means "to dull the senses". Stuns the victim with a bolt of red light.
Switching Spells - These are a class of spells which change items from one thing into another. This is the major branch of Transfiguration. It is not clear whether there are a number of related spells for different types of switching or whether it is all done with a single spell, as no details of this are given.
Tarantallegra - The Tarantella is a fast Italian dance. Causes the victim's legs to dance uncontrollably.
Trip Jinx - Causes the victim to trip over.
Unbreakable Charm - Makes an item unbreakable.
Waddiwasi - Causes an item to fly at high speed where the spell caster wants it to. This is likely to be a single variant of a general XXXXX - wasi spell which can be cast on any item. The XXXXX in this case was chewing gum, which is the "waddi" part.
Wingardium Leviosa - Causes an item to levitate.